Tuesday, January 20, 2009

Composting...




















What better way to learn about microorganisms and decomposition than composting?  Plus I get free kid labor to  further the health of my garden. (lol)  Lee was kind enough to make a bin for us with left over wood from some crates he built.  We started by adding a thick layer of oak and pine on the bottom.  Then we layered the compost with "green" and "brown" plant material to get it started.  We have been saving and dumping all kitchen scraps (minus fatty foods or meat) to the compost almost daily. I turn it over every two weeks to speed up the process.  It has been about a month now and we can see that everything is breaking down and turning into a nice healthy fertilizer that will benefit our flowers and vegetables greatly.  We found the process of decomposition very interesting, especially the tiny microorganisms that do most of the work.

In the process of composting, microorganisms break down organic matter and produce carbon dioxide, water, heat, and humus, the relatively stable organic end product. Under optimal conditions, composting proceeds through three phases: 1) the mesophilic, or moderate-temperature phase, which lasts for a couple of days, 2) the thermophilic, or high-temperature phase, which can last from a few days to several months, and finally, 3) a several-month cooling and maturation phase.

Initial decomposition is carried out by mesophilic microorganisms, which rapidly break down the soluble, readily degradable compounds. The heat they produce causes the compost temperature to rapidly rise.As the temperature rises above about 40°C, the mesophilic microorganisms become less competitive and are replaced by others that are thermophilic, or heat-loving. At temperatures of 55°C and above, many microorganisms that are human or plant pathogens are destroyed. Because temperatures over about 65°C kill many forms of microbes and limit the rate of decomposition, compost managers use aeration and mixing to keep the temperature below this point.

During the thermophilic phase, high temperatures accelerate the breakdown of proteins, fats, and complex carboydrates like cellulose and hemicellulose, the major structural molecules in plants. As the supply of these high-energy compounds becomes exhausted, the compost temperature gradually decreases and mesophilic microorganisms once again take over for the final phase of "curing" or maturation of the remaining organic matter.

Bacteria

Bacteria are the smallest living organisms and the most numerous in compost; they make up 80 to 90% of the billions of microorganisms typically found in a gram of compost. Bacteria are responsible for most of the decomposition and heat generation in compost. They are the most nutritionally diverse group of compost organisms, using a broad range of enzymes to chemically break down a variety of organic materials.

Bacteria are single-celled and structured as either rod-shaped bacilli, sphere-shaped cocci or spiral-shaped spirilla. Many are motile, meaning that they have the ability to move under their own power. At the beginning of the composting process (0-40°C), mesophilic bacteria predominate. Most of these are forms that can also be found in topsoil.

As the compost heats up above 40°C, thermophilic bacteria take over. The microbial populations during this phase are dominated by members of the genus Bacillus. The diversity of bacilli species is fairly high at temperatures from 50-55°C but decreases dramatically at 60°C or above. When conditions become unfavorable, bacilli survive by forming endospores, thick-walled spores that are highly resistant to heat, cold, dryness, or lack of food. They are ubiquitous in nature and become active whenever environmental conditions are favorable.Once the compost cools down, mesophilic bacteria again predominate. The numbers and types of mesophilic microbes that recolonize compost as it matures depend on what spores and organisms are present in the compost as well as in the immediate environment. In general, the longer the curing or maturation phase, the more diverse the microbial community it supports.Actinomycetes

The characteristic earthy smell of soil is caused by actinomycetes, organisms that resemble fungi but actually are filamentous bacteria. Like other bacteria, they lack nuclei, but they grow multicellular filaments like fungi. In composting they play an important role in degrading complex organics such as cellulose, lignin, chitin, and proteins.Fungi

Fungi include molds and yeasts, and collectively they are responsible for the decomposition of many complex plant polymers in soil and compost. In compost, fungi are important because they break down tough debris, enabling bacteria to continue the decomposition process once most of the cellulose has been exhausted.Protozoa

Protozoa are one-celled microscopic animals. They are found in water droplets in compost but play a relatively minor role in decomposition. Protozoa obtain their food from organic matter in the same way as bacteria do but also act as secondary consumers ingesting bacteria and fungi.

Rotifers

Rotifers are microscopic multicellular organisms also found in films of water in the compost. They feed on organic matter and also ingest bacteria and fungi.

We used Cornell as a source for our project and information for this topic. It was very thorough and helpful.

http://www.css.cornell.edu/compost/microorg.html


1 comment:

Dart Budgie said...

VERY cool post! You will have to let me know how it goes in the garden...you should be getting close to planning, eh? :-)